Genesis 44

1 Again, Joseph has his servants fill the sacks with grain and their money, but he also hatches a plot to keep Benjamin in Egypt.
2 Joseph was going to frame Benjamin for stealing. This ploy was probably unnecessary and involved deceit and false accusations. Fortunately, this plot does not last long. Joseph may have used this ruse to test his brothers to see if they had really changed. Where they really concerned about each other, or were they still selfishly concerned with their own affairs?
5 Joseph would not have really used the cup for divination (which is a pagan practice), but he had the servant say this to play on the ignorance of his brothers.
7 This trip to Egypt had turned out much better than the first one. The brothers were happily returning home when they are suddenly dismayed by this baffling accusation.
8 Logic would certainly defend them, but the circumstantial evidence convicts them.
9 The brothers were very confident than none of them would steal from the Egyptian ruler.
10 The steward does not agree to these terms, but instead sets his own. Since Joseph only wants Benjamin (alive, of course), the steward states that the "guilty" person will become a slave while the others may go free.
12 Of course, the steward knew which sack the "stolen" cup was in, but deliberately searched it last. This certainly increased the suspense and made the cup's discovery all that more dramatic.
13 The brothers tore their clothes because they were overcome with anger and grief. Benjamin was the one they were to protect, and now he would either die or become a slave in the Egyptian ruler's house (it would be ironic for a convicted burglar to become a servant in a rich man's house). The thought of returning to their father only to tell him that he has lost both of his favorite sons was unbearable.
14 By this time, it appears that Judah is the leader and spokesman for the brothers. The brothers are despondent and can only throw themselves at the ruler's mercy.
15 This is tongue-in-cheek, of course. Joseph set his brothers up and did not need to employ divination.
16 Only Benjamin knows for sure he is innocent, but the evidence seems so convicting. What defense could they possibly give? The brothers would rather all be enslaved than return to their father without Benjamin.
17 "Justice" only required that the guilty party be punished.

The command to "go in peace" is ironic. Any group of brothers that would have to return home and inform their father that one of them is enslaved could not be in peace.

18 It was very dangerous to confront a king. Judah knew that this Egyptian ruler could order him executed immediately for questioning a ruling. Judah comes forward boldly, yet respectfully pleading for mercy. This took great courage.
22 Judah recounts how the ruler had questioned them specifically about their family (Gen 43:7). They had been honest in their answers and then surprised when the ruler asked to see their youngest brother. They pleaded with him not to make them do this because of their father's deep love for Benjamin. They felt that separating Israel from Benjamin would certainly send Israel to the grave.
23 The ruler had not relented and forced them bring their brother at great peril to their father.
30 Israel's soul was tied to Benjamin. If Benjamin died, Israel would surely lose one of his main reasons for clinging to life.
31 Judah is pleading on the behalf of his father. Israel would die of a broken heart if he lost Benjamin.
33 Judah makes good on his promise to his father, and is willing to sacrifice himself for his brother. Jesus, his descendent, showed this same willingness.
34 Judah is proving in a real way that he loved both his father and his younger brother. He is proving that he is committed to his promise to return Benjamin to Israel.