Genesis 43

3 Judah was convinced it would have been a waste of time to return to Egypt without Benjamin. At best, they would not be allowed to buy grain. At worst, the remaining brothers would be thrown into prison. Joseph had made the presence of Benjamin be the only acceptable evidence to prove the brothers were not spies.
6 Israel was between a rock and a hard spot.
7 During the "interrogation," Joseph had asked many personal questions of his brothers. Yet, they did not recognize where the questioning was going. Neither did they recognize Joseph -- even in hindsight.
9 Judah is finally the one that is willing to take personal responsibility for Benjamin's safety. Israel would not trust Reuben, the oldest. Simeon, the second oldest, was in prison. Judah's assurance of Benjamin's safety finally convinces Israel to relent.
10 Joseph was probably also wondering why the brothers were taking so long to return. Had his plan backfired? What was Simeon thinking? Perhaps he felt that he would never get out of prison. Israel's concern for Benjamin almost surpassed his concern for Simeon, the other brothers, and starvation.
11 Because there was a famine, there would not have been many food gifts. Israel knew that the Egyptian governor had all the food he wanted, but these gifts might provide a unique and rare taste of Canaan he would not otherwise have. Unknowingly, these gifts would provide Joseph with a taste of his homeland that he had not had in years. This probably added to his emotional response during his second meeting with his brothers.
12 Of course, they were to take back the money that had "mistakenly" been returned. It would have been foolish to leave themselves open to possible accusations of robbery. Whenever we find ourselves in uncertain situations, we should be willing to straighten out things. Certainly, there will be many times when we will have to pay, but the point is that we make the effort to get things right.
14 Israel does the right thing by placing this situation in God's hands.
16 Now Joseph is in a strange position. He wants to spend time with his full brother, but does not yet want to reveal his identity. Certainly, the brothers have passed the first test. Perhaps Joseph already had in mind to test them again.
18 This is an irrational fear. If Joseph wanted to enslave them, he would simply take them by force immediately. Perhaps they feared that they were being "set up" to be accused of some other crime.
20 Even if you are frightened, you should tell the truth.
23 Of course, the steward was probably the one who returned the money as was ordered by Joseph (Gen 42:25). The steward had the receipt, so there was no problem with the books. That his master would want to return the money secretly would indeed be a blessing from God. In fact, the steward was probably very puzzled at Joseph's actions, but was not in a position to question them.

Simeon was relieved that his brothers had finally returned. "What took you so long?"

24 Joseph is now treating his brothers with traditional hospitality. Washing the feet was customary so that dust from the dirt roads would not be tracked into the house. Providing food for the donkeys was also hospitable (imagine if you went to someone's house, and thy filled your automobile with gasoline!).
26 They may have arranged their gifts of food on platters. It would be very appropriate to give such gifts just before the meal. No doubt, these foods brought back memories from Joseph's past.
27 Joseph is very interested in seeing his father again.
29 Joseph gives a blessing to his younger brother whom he has not seen in so many years. Obviously, Benjamin did not recognize his older brother, and this probably hurt Joseph. However, it was understandable considering the Benjamin was so young when Joseph was taken away and they had both gone through many changes.
30 Joseph loved his brother Benjamin very much, but was not ready yet to reveal his identity. When he could not keep a straight face, he left the room quickly. Perhaps the guests were concerned about their host, since this is the second time he had left them unexpectedly.
32 This is an interesting picture. There are three tables: the brothers at one, the Egyptians at another, and Joseph at another. This arrangement is necessary because of prejudice. The Egyptians were probably not prejudice against Hebrews specifically, since there were so few of them. Their prejudice was probably more generalized towards all foreigners, and specifically to those who did not believe or honor the Egyptian gods. Ironically, this prejudice even extended to Joseph. Although he was ruler of the land, the Egyptians would not eat with him.

The brothers may not have considered the situation too unusual. They knew the Egyptians would not eat with them, and they might not expect the ruler of the land to eat with lower ranking Egyptians and foreigners.

33 The men were not seated randomly, nor were they seated according to size or appearance. They were seated by age, and this astonished them. The Egyptians would have no way of knowing their relative ages.
34 Again, Joseph gives Benjamin a special blessing. During the meal, the brothers' fears vanished, and they had a very good time. Considering that it was a famine, they had probably not eaten so well in two years.